Taking advantage of the 4-way handshake

What is the 4-way handshake?

The 4-way handshake is an amendment to the original 802.11 standard to address security problems in WEP, which was implemented as Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2). Method designed so that an access point (AP) or authenticator, and a wireless client or supplicant can individually prove that each other know the PSK or PMK without ever sending the key.

Terms and definitions:

TK – Temporal Key = session “encryption” key

KCK – Key Confirmation Key = session “authentication” key

KEK – Key Encryption Key = session key for encryption keys

4-Way Handshake – 802.11i key management protocol

AP – Access Point (Authenticator)

STA – STAtion – Client (Supplicant)

GTK – Group Temporal Key

ACK – ACKnowledgement

MIC – Message Integrity Code

PTK – Pairwise Transient Key

PSK – Pre-Shared-Key

 

Inputs for key encryption:

ANonce – Authenticator Number used once

Nonce – Number used once

PMK – Pairwise Master Key = session authorization token

SNonce – Supplicant Number used once

AA – Authenticator Address – MAC Address

SA – Supplicant Address – MAC Address

 

Source: Kali Tutorials

How messages are sent:

  1. The Access Point (AP) or the authenticator sends a Authenticator Number used once (ANOnce) to the Client. At this point the STAtion (STA) or the client in this case, has all of the inputs required for the construction of Pairwise Transient Key (PTK) for Unicast encryption keys that will be used in the session.
  2. The STA constructs the PTK and sends its own SNonce to the AP and protects the frame with a Message Integrity Code (MIC) and AP can now calculate the PTK.
  3. The AP constructs and sends the Group Temporal Key (GTK) and a sequence number. A MIC is used to protect this frame and to prevent tampering of the frame.
  4. The STA sends a confirmation to the AP to let it know it is ready for encryption.

The PMK is never transferred across the wireless medium

Brute-force attack against 4-way Handshake:
Aircrack-ng is a complete suite of tools used to assess WiFi network security and will be used to monitor/capture the 4-way handshake and eventually crack the WPA Pre-Shared-Key (PSK).  

First Step (Monitoring):

Airmon-ng is a tool in the aircrack-ng suite that allows you to enable a monitoring mode on a wireless interface. It is best when using this tool to stop network managers and kill interfering processes, this feature is built into the tool and a user will be prompted when running it.

Step Two (Capture Packets):

Airdump-ng is another tool in the aircrack-ng suite that can be used to capture 802.11 frames, this is used to capture the 4-way handshake eventually. Capturing the handshake is essential for the eventual cracking.

Running airdump-ng allows you to capture a devices Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) or the media access control address (MAC Address), the channel the device is broadcasting on, what type of encryption is used (WPA2 in this case), the Extended Service Set IDentification (ESSID) of the network or simply the Service Set IDentifier (SSID).  

Step Three (Capture 4-way Handshake):

Users or a single user needs to be bumped of the network so when they reauthenticate the 4-way handshake can be captured. Aireplay-ng is a tool that can be used to deauthenticate users or a single user on the network by jamming the signal. In the example below the deauthentication count is set to 2 and the “-a” or access point is set to the BSSID of the AP.

After a user has been successfully deauthenticated from the network, airdump-ng is used to capture the packets that have the 4-way handshake.   

Now that we have obtained the packet captures and the WPA handshake from the reauthentication of a registered user.

PRO:

  • Stealthier than a technique like phishing  and attacks can be carried out offline.
  • A brute-force attack tends can help to raise less suspicion as the attacks can be done after capturing the handshake.

CON:

  • Not very reliable – Password needs to be in a list or fairly easily guessed
  • Time consuming – This all depends on a system’s resources

Sources:

http://ieee802.org/16/liaison/docs/80211-05_0123r1.pdf (IEEE)

http://www.kalitutorials.net/2014/06/hack-wpa-2-psk-capturing-handshake.html (Kali Tutorials)